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**KAZ**

Deficiencies In Vitamins And Nutrition

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**KAZ**    0

Nutrient Deficiency Signs:

 

Vitamin A Death at about 48 hours of incubation from failure to develop the circulatory system; abnormalities of kidneys, eyes and skeleton

 

Vitamin D Death at about 18 or 19 days of incubation, with malpositions, soft bones, and with a defective upper mandible prominent.

 

Vitamin E Early death at about 84 to 96 hours of incubation, with hemorrhaging and circulatory failure (implicated with selenium).

 

Thiamin High embryonic mortality during emergence but no obvious symptoms other than polyneuritis in those that survive.

 

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Mortality peaks at 60 hours, 14 days, and 20 days of incubation, with peaks prominent early as deficiency becomes severe. Altered limb and mandible development, dwarfism and clubbing of down are defects expressed by embryo.

 

Niacin Embryo readily synthesizes sufficient niacin from tryptophan. Various bone and beak malformations occur when certain antagonists are administered during incubation.

 

Biotin High death rate at 19 days to 21 days of incubation, parrot beak, chondrodystrophy, several skeletal deformities and webbing between the toes. Perosis.

 

Pantothenic acid Deaths appear around 14 days of incubation, although marginal levels may delay problems until emergence. Variable subcutaneous hemorrhaging and edema; wirey down in poults.

 

Pyridoxine Early embryonic mortality based on antivitamin use.

 

Folic acid Mortality at about 20 days of incubation. The dead generally appear normal, but many have bent tibiotarsus, syndactyly and mandible malformations. In poults, mortality at 26 days to 28 days of incubation with abnormalities of extremities and circulatory system.

 

Vitamin B12 Mortality at about 20 days of incubation, with atrophy of legs, edema, hemorrhaging, fatty organs, and head between thighs malposition.

 

Manganese Deaths peak prior to emergence. Chondrodystrophy, dwarfism, long bone shortening, head malformations, edema, and abnormal feathering are prominent. Perosis.

 

Zinc Deaths prior to emergence, and the appearance of rumplessness, depletion of vertebral column, eyes underdeveloped and limbs missing.

 

Iodine Prolongation of hatching time, reduced thyroid size, and incomplete abdominal closure.

 

Iron Low hematocrit; low blood hemoglobin; poor extra-embryonic circulation in candled eggs.

 

Selenium High incidence of dead embryos early in incubation.

 

Edited by KAZ

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**Liv**    0

Great Read! Never thought there was so much that could go wrong in the egg :doh:

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JMG    0

I have one pair, the female laid 6 eggs and sat on them faithfully, but they are dead in shell. Appear to have died early in gestation. Parents eat zupreem pellets with occasional greens and hard boiled eggs. Doesn't seem like there should have been a nutritional deficiency. Any suggestions welcome! Thanks.

 

 

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**KAZ**    0

I have one pair, the female laid 6 eggs and sat on them faithfully, but they are dead in shell. Appear to have died early in gestation. Parents eat zupreem pellets with occasional greens and hard boiled eggs. Doesn't seem like there should have been a nutritional deficiency. Any suggestions welcome! Thanks.

Answered in your other topic :)

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jazzcam77    0

Thanks however what do you feed them to avoid all this?

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Finnie    0

A well balanced diet. Access to oyster shell grit, bird charcoal and mineral powder. And supplement with liquid calcium and vitamin D3 if they don't have enough access to unblocked natural sunlight.

 

Breeding birds should have fresh vegetables daily, not occasionally.

 

 

If you think your birds may have a deficiency, re think over your daily care regimen, and see what needs tweaking. :)

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maz7    0

Interesting read. So I will go 2 aviaries now to check my specs for health.

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